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A list of all the posts and pages found on the site. For you robots out there is an XML version available for digesting as well.

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About me

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A personal reflection on my journey from foundations of math and physics towards industry.

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The notion that mathematics is an art is extended to touch cultural influence, giving rise to an analogy between memes and mathematical axioms. This results in the argument that mathematical axioms and hence mathematical laws are susceptible to human biases as regards to their aims and intentions.

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Topology I notes here, consisting of point set topology and metric spaces. Follows Munkres, mostly. Topology II notes consisting of basics of Algebraic Topology. Mostly from Hatcher. There are lots of topics missing!

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Some topics in Fuzzy Algebra. Notes are self-contained, starting with lattice theory, logic and fuzzy set theory. Notes here.

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The local langland conjectures, building from ground up. See here. Supporting appendix here

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Built from classics of Royden, Folland and some Rudin. See notes here

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Download the file here.

Jupyter notebook to find all 2-simplices in a given DGL graph

This Jupyter notebook encodes a solution to the problem of finding all n-simplices within a graph.

Constructing the coskeleton of a Delta set

GNN that message passes features within a simplex, essentially bottlenecking it within a simplex

Jupyter notebook to find initial configurationf of a given evolution of a *Game of Life*

Python scripts to construct various simplicial sets in different circumstances

GNN that message passes features of pseudotop vertices, after a refinement

Finding simplices of a directed graph using adjacency matrix

Published in *COMSATS Institute of Information Technology*, 2012

The theory of quantum mechanics, developed as a limiting case to classical mechanics, notwithstanding its interpretive difficulties, has with it the elegance for paving way to a variety of applications. One such application is the implementation of a working Quantum Computer. The push one receives for using quantum principles as a measure of information and execution of algorithms is from quantum parallelism. It seems as though nature hides its enormous calculations. One such realisation of the power of Quantum Parallelism can be seen with quantum optics when one considers engineering a Quantum Computer, choosing techniques of cavity QED amongst many other competitors. The Deutsch-Josza algorithm, although of little practical signi cance, is an encouraging example which greatly reduces the time required for a specific function to be determined completely, when compared with its classical counterpart. The Hadamard gate has been physically realised, and so has the other unitary transformations in the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm using different times of interactions in the cavity. Also, a generalisation of the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm has been discussed, which might pave way for a working model of a Quantum Computer.

Recommended citation: Malik, A.N. Engineering Deutsch-Jozsa Algorithm in Cavity QED via Bragg Regime. Diss. COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, 2012. __http://abdullahnaeemmalik.github.io/files/Engineering the Deutsch-Jozsa Algorithm.pdf__

Published in *arXiv*, 2016

We exhibit a non-constructive proof in which anti-automorphisms are not valuation-preserving and hence non-isometric

Recommended citation: Malik, A.N. Non-isometric, involutive antiautomorphisms. arXiv:1603.08498, 2016 __https://arxiv.org/pdf/1603.08498.pdf__

Published in *Quaid-i-Azam University*, 2016

The purpose of this thesis is to analyse the Hilbert Space requirement for Quantum Mechanics. In particular, we justify sharp observables but question the requirement of completeness of the inner product space and the underlying field. We view our mathematical framework as a dynamical theory but with a mysterious probabilistic interpretation instead of the otherway round. Whenever we speak of Quantum Mechanics, we mean Non-relativistic Quantum Mechanics. To make things less messy, we assume associativity through-out. No attempt has been made to refer to QFT and statistical quantum mechanics and we use conventional mathematical symbols instead of Dirac’s formalism.

Recommended citation: Malik, A.N. Operator Algebras and Foundations of Quantum Mechanics. Diss. Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad, 2016 __http://abdullahnaeemmalik.github.io/files/Operator Algebras and the Foundations of Quantum Mechanics.pdf__

Published in *Springer*, 2016

We show that orthomodularity in general and non-existence of isotropic vectors in particular decisively yield the geometry of quantum mechanics and that a fundamental reason why quantum mechanics and relativity cannot be unified is because of the non-existence of isotropic vectors

Recommended citation: Malik, A.N., Kamran, T. Orthomodularity and the incompatibility of relativity and quantum mechanics. Quantum Stud.: Math. Found. 4, 171–179 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40509-016-0092-8 __https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40509-016-0092-8__

Published in *The International Journal of Humanities & Social Studies*, 2017

In Pakistan, there has been a surge in women entrepreneurship, either as a sole proprietorship or joint partnership mostly with male family members. Using non-randomized data, in this paper we compare the impact of gender of owner on the performance of the enterprise in Pakistan. Our results show an intricate association between the gender of the owner and the performance of the enterprise. While there is no significant difference in the performance with respect to profitability of the business, however, female owned enterprises have shown more employment growth as compared to male owned enterprises. Results of OLS regression on the basis of gender show that common factors that affect the performance of the enterprises have assorted effects for male-owned and female-owned enterprises. For female entrepreneurs, education in the most significant factor in their business success.

Recommended citation: Xing, Y. H., Farooq, M. U., & Malik, A. N. Effects of Gender on the Performance of Microenterprises in Pakistan. The International Journal of Humanities & Social Studies, 5(11). 2017 __https://www.internationaljournalcorner.com/index.php/theijhss/article/view/125536__

Published in *Preprints.org*, 2018

This preprint is a culmination of the proposal that marked the introduction of hybrid courses to COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, and the evolution of its model as an amalgam of the traditional class room model augmented with the aid of state-of-the-art online learning technologies. Two hybrid courses were offered to full-time students, with all the courses in traditional classroom mode, except one course offered as hybrid course, with both synchornous and asynchronous learning modalities. A survey and its results of the pilot program are presented.

Recommended citation: Behzad, M.; Adnan, N.; Malik, A.N..; Merchant, S.A. Technology-Embedded Hybrid Learning. Preprints 2018, 2018030229. https://doi.org/10.20944/preprints201803.0229.v2 __https://www.preprints.org/manuscript/201803.0229/v2__

Published in *Florida State University*, 2024

The Weisfeiler-Leman algorithm is a powerful test of graph isomorphism, and works by iteratively isolating clusters of nodes via a coloring scheme based on binary relationships. This refinement process is akin to message passing on graph neural networks. Graph neural networks are paradigms of computation that yield powerful results for structured data based on binary relationships, and therefore their expressivity shares the limitations of the Weisfeiler-Leman test. One way to circumvent this limitation relies on identifying and working with higher relationships within the data, or by finding a better refinement criterion that can be implemented on a machine. In this thesis, we put forward data structures closely based on the identification of such higher relationships via Kan Extensions of structured data built on binary relations. These data structures are well known in algebraic topology as Simplicial Sets; the theoretical underpinnings based on the combinatorics of simplicial sets and directed graphs are explored in this thesis and, based on of it, algorithms are introduced that can identify higher-order relations. A metric that can serve as a quantification for community detection tools is also introduced, as well as the notion of a pseudoterminal vertex as a proxy for these higher relations. This helps us balance the variance-bias tradeoff necessary for generalizability of the architecture. We introduce functors that show how these higher relationships can be modelled and expanded. Finally, we propose three neural networks that benefit from the topology of these nonbinary relations. These neural networks can be ported into the standard graph neural network library to augment feature classification in a semisupervised manner. All source code is available at https://github.com/abdullahnaeemmalik/simplicial-methods-in-graph-machine-learning

Recommended citation: Malik, A.N. Simplicial Methods in Graph Machine Learning. Diss. Florida State University, 2024. __https://www.proquest.com/dissertations-theses/simplicial-methods-graph-machine-learning/docview/3064071895/se-2?accountid=4840__

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The works of Kurt Godel, Alan Turing and Gregory Chaitin are summarised. I gave this talk as an undergrad in my alma mater. The draft of the talk is available here.

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Webpage of the conference. I presented my undergrad thesis. Certificate of participation here.

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See draft of talk here

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Different proofs of the divergence of harmonic series are presented, along with some applications

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Slides of the talk available here. As the title suggests, we talked about some fixed point theorems and their applications.

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Slides here. This presentation was a public talk about the countable and uncountable.

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Embarrassed to admit it, but you can find Powerpoint slides here. This talk focuses on the life and struggles of Alexander Grothendieck.

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Slides here. The same talk was presented in Quaid-e-Azam University on 12/4/2015.

**Abstract:** We work our way by physical intuition to the popular axioms of Quantum Mechanics as defined by von Neumann. Directions come by appeal to the Double Slit Experiment and by using notions of functional analysis, as defined in E. Kreyszig, Introductory Functional Analysis with Applications, John Wiley & Sons, 1978

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We work our way by physical intuition to the popular axioms of Quantum Mechanics as defined by von Neumann. Directions come by appeal to the Double Slit Experiment and by using notions of functional analysis, as defined in E. Kreyszig, Introductory Functional Analysis with Applications, John Wiley & Sons, 1978

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Invited speaker. Website of the conference. Slides of presentation here.

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Slides here. Presentation of two papers as a final project for a course on Functional Analysis

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Draft of the talk here.

**Abstract**: On August 8, 1900, David Hilbert presented the then community of mathematicians a list of problems in the Second International Congress in Paris. These problems shaped the mathematics of the proceeding years. One particular problem, called Hilbert's Sixth Problem, was a programmatic call for the axiomatization of physics. To date, no satisfactory axioms have been proposed. In this talk, we survey the mathematical reasons why this is the case and present a possible approach using Topos Theory.

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Slides of the talk here.

**Abstract**: All of mathematical physics either concerns infinitesimal descriptions of reality or global descriptions of reality. A simple example of the former is a differential equation, whereas fields like gravitational fields and electromagnetic fields exemplify the latter. Differential Geometry and Differential Topology provide a language that unfiies this description in the language of bundles. For instance, fields are defined as sections of appropriate bundles. In fact, a field theory, which is usually formalised as a variational calculus problem and its leading differential equation, can be prescribed in terms of special bundles called jet bundles. This formalism for field theory spans both classical and quantum field theory, after suitable modifications.

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Slides of the talk.

**Abstract**: Differential Cohomology is a cohomological theory which extends topological cohomology theories. These latter generalized cohomology theories are those which satisfies Eilenberg-Steenrod axioms, an example of which is singular cohomology. Differential Cohomology extends topological cohomology by taking into account geometric data of the underlying topological space. In this talk, we review the basic construction of ordinary differential cohomology in the spirit of Simons and Cheeger and then talk about the axioms of Differential Cohomology. This document contains all of the details of the talk.

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Notes of the talk.

**Abstract**: Simplicial Sets model weak homotopy types of topological spaces and ∞-groupoids, thanks to their particularly simple but powerful functorial definition. By their very nature, these models are very combinatorial. However, much of the combinatorics are hidden, and therefore, mostly forgotten in the above models. In this talk, we will delve into the details of the combinatorics of a simplicial set itself, working our way through the combinatorics of a simplicial complex and delta set, with their gluing data, thus motivating the need for a simplicial set in the first place. We will introduce terminology that lets us handle all this (infinite) data simultaneously, effectively bringing the combinatorics to the fore. Finally, time permitting, we will talk about the combinatorics of Kan complexes and simplicial homotopy.

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Slides here. This was a public talk, open to members of the *Honors, Scholars and Fellows Society* of Florida State University

**Abstract**: The first use of a graph of a network can be traced back to Euler on his solution to the Bridges of Konigsberg problem. Since then, graphs have been mainly a mathematical curiosity. The acceptance of graphs by the wider scientific community has exploded in the past twenty years or so, especially after the very humbling and exciting endeavor of mapping of the network of the code of our origins a.k.a., the Human Genome Project. However, many of the common utilizations of graphs rely on a finite amount of data, however large. In this talk, we'll introduce the notion of a simplicial set, which generalizes the notion of a graph to account for an infinite amount of data. Time permitting, we'll look into an example of these infinite graphs applied to the modelling of misinformation.

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Slides of the talk.

**Abstract**: Recent Nobel in Physics went to the pioneering experimentalists who helped lay foundations for Quantum Information Science. However, what the experiments also do is displace unsettling questions in philosophy out from the domain of social sciences, by bridging the physics of John Stuart Bell towards empirically verifiable claims. This is accomplished by exhibiting systems that violate an inequality, known as Bell's Inequality. In this talk, we will delve into the details of Bell's Inequality and discuss its assumptions, advancements that led to the development of Bell's Theorem, and its implications for the foundations of Quantum Mechanics.

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I presented the algorithm to find simplices within a directed graph via the adjacency approach. The poster may be found here

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**Abstract**: Graph neural networks are paradigms of computation that yield powerful results for structured data based on binary relationships. However, they are limited in their expressivity by the Weisfeiler-Lehman test of for graph isomorphism. The core idea behind machine learning community's circumvention of this limitation relies on identifying (and working with) higher relationships within the data. In this talk, we put forward an architecture closely based on the identification of such higher relationships via Kan Extensions of structured data built on binary relations. We will talk about its theoretical underpinnings based on the combinatorics of simplicial sets, and based off of it, introduce the notion of a pseudotop vertex as a proxy for these higher relations. We talk about how this choice respects the variance and bias trade off necessary for generalizability of the architecture.

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Slides and conference packet.

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